Topic3 DQ2 respond to Michelle Zhao

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The nursing conceptual model represents abstract and general work that can guide research and practice. A conceptual model may be thought of as an early-stage of theory development (Thompson,2017)”,

A nursing theory provides a way to “organize the nurse’s thinking by providing decision-making structures to guide the reasoning required for quality professional nursing practice” (Alligood, 2010). “The major difference between a conceptual model/framework and a theory is the level of specificity and practical use (Alligood, 2010; Fawcett, 2013; Masters, 2015).”

Katharine Kolcaba’s “Theory of Comfort” emphasize the importance of patient’s comfort development to improve patient outcomes. She introduced this theory in the 1990s. It’s a middle range theory for health practice. The “Theory of Comfort” consisted of three form: relief, ease, and transcendence. She used an example of a postsurgical patient was experiencing pain, which was in discomfort, and after pain med administered, the patient’s pain eased, and patient’s transcendence is reached to a level of comfort (, n.d.) Comfort is the basic fundamental human needs and nurses are in constant strive to provide that for patients. By asking patients, “Are you comfortable?” is a simple way to evaluate their needs. To heal, a patient must feel comfortable.


Alligood, M. R. (2010). Nursing theory: Utilization and application (4th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

Fawcett, J. (2015). Theory testing and theory evaluation. In J. B. Butts and K. L. Rich (Eds.), Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice (2 nd ed., pp. 593-611). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Masters, K. (2015). Nursing theories: A framework for professional practice (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning., Kolcaba’s Theory of Comfort. retrieved from:…

Thompson, C. J. (2017, February 14). What is a theoretical framework or conceptual model? [Blogpost]. Retrieved from

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