the major logical fallacies
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QUESTION 1 ( in 600 Words, APA format)
Once you learn the names of the major logical fallacies, you will probably start noticing them all over the place, including in advertisements, movies, TV shows, and everyday conversations. This can be both fascinating and frustrating, but it can certainly help you to avoid certain pitfalls in reasoning that are unfortunately very common. This exercise gives you a chance to practice identifying fallacies as they occur in daily life.
Prepare: To prepare to address this prompt, carefully read through Chapter 7 of our book, paying special attention to learning the names of common fallacies, biases, and rhetorical tricks. Take a look as well at the required resources from this week.
Reflect: Search through common media sources looking for examples of fallacies. Some common places to find fallacies include advertisements, opinion pieces in news media, and arguments about politics, religion, and other controversial issues. You may also notice fallacies in your daily life.
Write: Present three distinct informal logical fallacies you have discovered in these types of sources or in your life. Make sure to identify the specific fallacy committed by each example. Explain how the fallacies were used and the context in which they occurred. Then, explain how the person should have presented the argument to have avoided committing this logical error.
Guided Response: Read the fallacies presented by your classmates and analyze the reasoning that they have presented. Respond in a way that furthers the discussion. For example, you might comment on any of the following types of questions: Have ever seen or fallen for similar fallacies in your own life? Are any of the cases presented also instances of some other type of fallacy? Is there a sense in which the reasoning might not be fallacious in some cases? What can people do to avoid falling for such fallacies in the future?
QUESTION 2 (in 600 Words, APA format)( Chapter 7 is attach)
We have all committed fallacies at one point or another in our lives, so for this discussion we ask you to reflect on the fallacy that you find that you commit the most frequently.
Prepare: Read Chapter 7 of the textbook, and take notes. Make a selection from the fallacies that are explained in that chapter (Make sure to choose a fallacy from the textbook for this course and not from any other source. Also, do not stop at the first fallacy that you recognize since your knowledge of all fallacies will not only enhance your overall knowledge, it will also come in handy for the second discussion).
Reflect: Reflect on the fallacies that you have read and find the one that you commit the most. Think about how frequently you have committed the fallacy and what kinds of things tend to lead to you committing it.
Write: Present an example of an argument (or arguments) that you have made that commits that particular fallacy. Present the reasoning in standard form. Evaluate your argument (or arguments) by indicating the name of the fallacy that you committed and explaining why this argument is fallacious. What might you do to avoid committing that type of fallacy in the future? How might learning to avoid this fallacy benefit your life?
Guided Response: Respond to at least two (2) other intros in this forum by the end of day seven of this first week. Your goal should be to see if the classmate has exemplified the fallacy correctly and/or presented the description of the fallacy correctly as well. You might also mention if the fallacy in question is also an example of any other type of fallacy that we have studied. You may also examine the correctness of the standard form. Is it presented in the vertical fashion with premises on top and the conclusion at the end? Are the premises clearly presented? Any corrections or examples that you may offer your classmates will not only help your classmate learn the material, it will give you the practice that you need in order to learn the material yourself.
QUESTION 3 (at least 250 words, APA format)( In my career I am an area business sales manager)
Reflect back about what you have learned in this course about how to construct high quality arguments for positions. Give an example of how the ability to construct good arguments could help you in your career or in your daily life. Also, in what ways will the skill of being able to evaluate the quality of reasoning better enable you to discover what is true and to make better choices? (Give a specific example of each).
Finally, consider the argument you have been developing for your writing assignments. How has considering objections helped you clarify your perspective? What might you add to your argument to make it more convincing in light of those objections? What points would you recommend that people keep in mind in order to be fair to both sides?
Your journal entry must be at least 250 words. You do not need to follow APA style for this journal entry, but you should proofread your work to eliminate errors of grammar and spelling.
QUESTION 4 (at least 250 words, APA format)
Prepare: To prepare for this discussion, watch the following video from Daniel H. Cohen [Link here to http://www.ted.com/talks/daniel_h_cohen_for_argument_s_sake.html] and review section 9.4 of Chapter 9 called “Confronting Disagreement by Seeking Truth.” Take a look as well at the required resources from this week and make sure that you have completed “The Graduate” interactive scenario.
Reflect: Think about experiences you have had that involved conflicts with others. What was the genesis of the conflict? Would it have been possible for the exchange to be more productive? Think about why disagreements often lead to fights rather than opportunities to learn from each other.
Write: Answer the following questions: What is an area of life in which you have experienced people treating arguments as a kind of war? What were the consequences of that approach? What is an area of life in which you have experienced people treating arguments as a kind of performance? Was that approach effective? Why is it better to treat arguments as a venue for learning? What traits of character does it require to be able to live according to that approach? What benefits can it have in our lives to take that approach? (please give a specific example)
Guided Response: Respond to the thoughts presented by your classmates in a way that furthers and deepens the conversation. You might, for example, share an example in your own life that relates to the experiences they shared. You might add further thoughts to their answers to the questions. You might offer other ways in which we can learn to embody the kind of humility that the speaker advocates. In any case, let your response further the goal of the learning from arguments.
Question 5 ( see attached files, this is a topic that is being discussed over the course, APA format)
This final assignment is designed to involve all of the main skills that you have learned during this course. In particular, your paper should demonstrate the ability to construct a deductively valid or inductively strong argument, clearly and accurately explain your reasoning, use high-quality academic sources to support the premises of your argument, fairly and honestly evaluate contrary arguments and objections, and identify fallacies and biases that occur within the arguments or objections presented.
You will continue to build on the arguments that you are presented in your previous two papers. In particular, you will present a final improved version of your argument for your thesis that you begin for the Week One Assignment and fully address the objection that you developed for your Week Three Assignment. You will need to research a minimum of three scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library. (For further information about discovering and including scholarly research, take a look at the Help! Need Article tutorial (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. instructional resource.)
Write: in your paper
- Explain the topic you are addressing and your position on it. Provide a preview of your paper and a statement of your thesis in your opening paragraph. [Approximately 100 words]
- Present your main argument for your thesis in standard form, with each premise and the conclusion on a separate line. Clearly indicate whether your argument is intended to be inductive or deductive. Follow up the presentation of your argument by clarifying the meaning of any premises that could use some explanation. [About 150 words]
- If your argument is deductive, then it should be valid (in the strict logical sense of the word); if it is inductive, then it should be strong. Make sure to avoid committing logical fallacies within your argument (e.g., begging the question). Additionally, the premises should be true, to the best of your knowledge. If one of your premises has a pretty obvious counter-example, then you should either fix the argument so that it does not have this flaw, or later, in your paper (steps three through five) you should address the apparent counter-example (showing that it does not really refute the truth of your premise). Arguments that are not valid, not very strong, commit fallacies, or that have counter-examples that are not adequately addressed will not receive full credit.
- Provide supporting evidence for the premises of your argument. [Approximately 350 words]
- Pay special attention to those premises that could be seen as controversial. Evidence may include academic research sources, supporting arguments (arguments whose conclusions are premises of the main argument), or other ways of demonstrating the truth of those premises. This section should include at least one scholarly research source.
- Explain a strong objection to your argument. [Approximately 250 words]
- Study what people on the other side of this question think about your reasoning and present the best possible objection that someone could have to your argument. Do not commit the straw man fallacy here. Reference at least one scholarly research source. See the “Practicing Effective Criticism” section of Chapter 9 of the course text for more information.
- Defend your argument against the objection. [Approximately 200 words]
- Once you have presented the objection, indicate clearly how you might respond to it. It is acceptable to admit that reasonable people might disagree with you or that there might be an area in which your argument could be further strengthened, but you should do your best to explain why your argument is sound or cogent despite the objections.
- Provide an appropriate conclusion. [Approximately 75 words]
- For guidance about how to develop a conclusion see the Introductions and Conclusion (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. resource from the Ashford Writing Center.
For further instruction on how to create arguments, see the How to Construct a Valid DeductiveArgument (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and Tips for Creating an Inductively Strong Argument (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. documents as well as the Contructing Valid Arguments Video (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. For an example of a completed Final Paper, see the Annotated Example The Ethics of Elephants in Circuses (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Let your instructor know if you have questions about how to complete this paper.
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