PSU Human Genome Project Natural Selection & Evolution Discussion

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Please answer 5 (five) of the following 7 questions (using 350-500 words each) in a Word or Word-compatible document (restatement of the question or quotes, which you should not be using, do not count towards the total). Similarity below 15% is considered acceptable. 

  1. What is the Human Genome Project?  In what year was the human genome first fully sequenced and who were the scientists who were chiefly associated with this project?  Describe three scientific benefits of humans being able to know our entire genetic sequence.
  2. What is natural selection?  How does it differ from evolution?  Why is natural selection generally discussed along with evolution (how do they interact)?  On what level (individual, community, population) does evolution occur?  Is it possible genetically for an individual to evolve?  Why or why not?  What are some types of scientific evidence which support evolution?
  3. Name and describe three types of speciation events.  How do they differ from each other?
  4. What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?  Where can each be found living?  When did each of these groups arise?  Name and describe at least two interactions between humans and prokaryotes.
  5. What are mycorrhizae?  What are the types of mycorrhizae and how do they differ?  What are some of the benefits afforded to plants and to fungi that form mycorrhizae?
  6. While we now tend to focus on climate change brought about by human activities (primarily by unbalancing the carbon cycle in the last 100-150 years), the climate of the earth has been changing naturally for hundreds of millions of years.  Summarize the climate and the dominant plant life in each of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic Eras.
  7. One of the characteristics of plants is the alternation of generations.  Plants spend part of their life cycle in haploid (n) form alternating with a diploid (2n) form.  For angiosperms, describe the life cycle of a typical individual, beginning with fertilization and ending with fertilization of the next generation.  Include as many structures and their ploidy level (haploid or diploid) as you can.
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