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1.An export controls are used to control any exchange of good and services of countries who do not share same political beliefs, or do not comply with economic stance. The strengths of using export control are that it helps protect domestic economy and maintain security. For instance, considering criminal penalties, when Country A is found to export poisonous product to Country B, country B can impose export controls on importing products of Country A to product its country. On the other hand, however, the export controls might prevent multilateral controls to effectively establish. If County B is imposing export controls just to protect its domestic industries, too much control in imported products would cause unfair trade relationship.

2.Export controls refer to when there is regulation on transfers or shipments in any way. A control on the items against export from the country such as technology, services or software is export control. The purpose of using this measure is to achieve national security and address various foreign and economic concerns. The process of export control involves a complex network of federal agencies, which make rules, and regulations that guide the whole process of exporting products. Any entity that fails to follow the rules on exporting will face a penalty or criminal charges. In most cases, the controls on exporting products and services are placed on the military and defense products and services (Achilléas, 2016). Other areas where similar sanctions are placed include in the sale of high performance computers, nuclear technology, encryption technologies and medical equipment. Some of the strengths that are accrued from this practice include limiting the advantage of using specific products within a particular country thus not granting foreign countries an advantage of using advanced technologies. On the contrast, export control can affect some businesses, economic interests and jobs.

3.There both similarities and differences between EU and US. They are similar in ways that both are composed of several member states or countries sharing same goals, and allows free movement of goods and services within the union. They both use single currency, and the decisions with each union are exercised in federal-level. On the other hand, the differences are in that the nations of the EU are recognized as independent “nations” but the states of the US are not. In addition, unlike the states of the US, there are no unified military, no universal standard for education, and no single language in the EU.

4.The states of US are different from the European Union in multiple terms. The American states have a two party system, a unified defense framework, a single constitution, and a unified federal police system. These functional dimensions are lacking when it comes to the European Union. The latter does not have a uniformly standardized framework regarding education, which the US characterizes. The similarities between the two domains are free trade and free movement between states. Taxation occurs at the Union/Federal level as well as in national terms. A fraction goes to the national account while the other is given to the union. Regarding international norms, there is a standardized universal law and a personal individualized law of states for both. Domestic politics operates at a Union/Federal level, as well as at state level. This has rendered intense debates in EU. For instance, a former Greek finance minister, Yanis Varoufakis agrees with a former finance minister of Germany, Wolfgang Schauble, that political union is necessary for monetary union (Rodrik, 2017).

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