direct states and local governments, political science homework help

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Mandate requirements that direct states
and local governments to provide additional services under the threat of
penalties or as a condition of the receipt of federal grant money.
Unfunded Mandate is a mandate issued by the national government in which
federal funds are not provided. This was seen with the Americans with
Disabilities Act. “A mandate is a constitutional provision, a statute,
an administrative regulation, or a judicial ruling that places an
expenditure requirement on a government” (Mikesell, 2014, p.627).

Medicaid is a joint federal and state
program that provides free or low-cost medical benefits to millions of
Americans including some low-income families and children, pregnant
women, the elderly, people with disabilities, and in some states, other
adults. The federal government provides a portion of the funding for
Medicaid and sets guidelines for the program. States also have choices
in how they design their program, so Medicaid varies by state and may
have a different name in your state.

Medicaid in the United States is a social
health care program for families and individuals with limited
resources. The Health Insurance Association of America describes
Medicaid as a “government insurance program for persons of all ages
whose income and resources are insufficient to pay for health care”.

Just when Florida thought the health care
battle was over, Governor Rick Scott (R-FL) was the first governor to
announce that he will not accept approximately $1.9 billion dollars in
Medicaid funds allocated to his state by the Affordable Care Act. The
full act did not take effect until January 1, 2014, unless it is
repealed before then and states are not required to begin implementation
before the November election. Scott opted the state out of the two
optional provisions of the law which are the Medicaid entitlement
expansion and the building of insurance exchanges.

Although Florida does have health care
programs for citizens with incomes up to 133% of the poverty line, the
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act enables children to stay
covered under their parents’ insurance until age 26, while Florida
KidCare only keeps children covered until the age of 18. How many
families will be unable to afford full priced coverage because Scott
denied them subsidized insurance?

The second provision offered building
insurance exchanges that resulted in higher insurance premium costs that
will be a burden on Florida citizens instead of the federal government.
Scott said, “The real problem with health care is that costs continue
to rise,” but it must be understood precisely why they are rising and
how to supplement the costs. As people are living longer and technology
develops faster, more lives can be saved more quickly, and thus the
exact treatments and processes that may be included under the umbrella
of health care are expanding rapidly. Health care as we see it today
will not be the same as what health care will – and should be – in fifty

Mikesell (2014) tells of this when he
references that, “…mandates can threaten other government programs. If
limits constrain a government’s ability to raise revenue, mandates for
certain expenditures can endanger the provision of other desirable
services” (p.629).

The ACA requires that all individuals be
required to have health insurance or pay a penalty. For low-income
individuals, in many cases, health insurance comes in the form of
Medicaid which is funded by the states (Cowie, 2016). The Affordable
Care Act, which was mandated by the executive branch, has had a
significant impact on state governments.


Cowie, S. (2016). The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on State
Budgets. Retrieved from…

Mikesell, J. L. (2014). Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.…/florida-governor-rick-scott-re…

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