Do you think citizen participation is an essential element in politics and government? What role do citizens take in public policy? In her classic essay of 1969, Sherry R. Arnstein posited a typology of American citizens’ participation in their government. Intentionally provocative, her typology attempts to explain opportunities for, and barriers to, civic engagement among citizens with power and those without. It provides an excellent context for citizen participation, and you can draw upon Arnstein’s example to understand the implications of citizen participation on the development of public policy.
For this Discussion, review Arnstein’s, “A Ladder of Citizen Participation” and reflect on how this typology has been demonstrated in presidential administrations and in the development of public policy.
Post your explanation of how Arnstein’s typology has been demonstrated in the last two presidential administrations. Provide two examples to illustrate your views. Then, explain at least two implications of citizen participation on the development of public policy or platforms.