Critical Thinking Assignment 2

Choose either Option A, Option B, or Option C: [worth 200 points]

Option A:

Evaluating Resources [worth 200 points]

  • View the video “A Consumer’s Guide to Sourcing in News Reports” from The News Literacy Project at
  • Research the Internet to obtain 3 online sources that support your position on an issue.
  • Apply each the 7 Key Points outlined in the video to each of the 3 sources.
  • Based on these 7 key points, indicate whether or not each of the 3 sources is a credible resource on the issue and explain your rationale.

Option B:

A Problem Solving Proposal [worth 200 points]

  • Review the website “The Problem Solving Process” at
  • Consider a complex workplace problem you or your team is currently experiencing.
  • Write a proposal to solve the problem by applying each of the 6 steps in the problem solving process.

Option C:

Language Analysis [worth 200 points]

  • Find a 2-3 minute online video of an interview or speech that demonstrates examples of each one of the seven misleading patterns of language described in Chapter 8, page 8.5 Word Games (or at least 5 of the 7).
  • Next, identify and explain why these examples may inappropriately sway an audience.

Assignment Requirements

The assignment should follow guidelines for clear and organized writing and be three pages in length.

·Address main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences.

·Include an introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph.

·Adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling.

This course requires use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.

The assignments should follow these formatting and citation requirements:

·Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides.

·In-text citations and the References page must follow Strayer Writing Standards (SWS) format.

·Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

Synthesis Paper: Doctoral Identity

In Topic 2, you were asked to read three articles on the topic of doctoral identity and to complete an annotated bibliography to demonstrate their understanding of the material. In Topic 3, you were asked to take this process a step further and identify themes found in the three articles and to complete a synthesis worksheet where the themes were supported by evidence from each article. In this assignment, you will build on your worksheet efforts and write a paper about the three themes. The narrative will not only present the evidence from the articles to support the identified themes, but also will provide an analysis for each theme by synthesizing the information collected.

General Requirements:

  • Locate the Synthesis Worksheet you completed in Topic 3.
  • Locate and download “Synthesis Paper Template” from the Course Materials for this topic.
  • Review the articles by Baker & Pifer (2011), Gardner (2009), and Smith & Hatmaker (2014) located in the Course Materials for this topic.
  • This assignment uses a rubric. Review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
  • Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. Review the GCU APA Style Guide for Writing located in the Student Success Center.
  • You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.


Using the Synthesis Worksheet you completed in Topic 3 and considering the themes you developed and the feedback provided by your instructor, write a paper (1,000-1,250 words) that synthesizes the three articles. Your paper should include the following:

  1. An introduction that introduces and provides context for the topic. This includes giving a brief description of each article and its purpose, identifying the three themes that emerged from your reading, describing how they will be discussed in the paper, and presenting a clear thesis statement.
  2. Support for your identified themes with evidence from each article. Provide analysis of these findings to strengthen your narrative.
  3. A discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn when the articles are taken together as a single entity. What is the overall message of the group of articles?

Identify At least Three Sociological Concepts After Watching the Provided Videos

The Aging Connection

How to Begin: Watch the videos below:

Write a paper that identifies at least three sociological concepts that
are alluded to in the videos, pulling from aging, discrimination, and
social stratification theories. At minimum, you should refer to one
video, if not multiple videos, to support your ideas.

For each concept:

  1. Identify the concept using sociological terminology.
  2. Indicate how the concept is associated with a particular theory or theorist.
  3. Describe the concept in your own words.
  4. Describe the part of the video that you think exemplifies this concept.
  5. Explain how the concept relates to your personal life and/or to your community (city, state, or country).

You need to accurately cite your sources, including any videos, the
textbook, and at least one scholarly source. The scholarly source may be
pulled from class readings.

The paper must be 800 to 1,200 words, or about three to four pages in
length (excluding the title and reference page), and formatted according
to APA style. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on
the reference page.

Song Journal Entry

Devote 100 words to each song, for a total of 300 words.

Your writing should be succinct and to the point, free of idle words and expressions. Avoid colloquialisms and grandiose wording, but do not be rigid. Do not use citations; just write in your own words–Please, do use such an already small word count to cite songs’ lyrics. You may emphasize a couple of words, but do not write entire lines and stanzas. I want to read your thoughts, not the lyrics. Or, if you do need to include lyrics, then write a longer log.

**The most efficient way is to state the song title above, and write a clear paragraph of your impressions, song’s background, and possibly some music analysis. **

The 3 songs you will be listening to are

The Beatles- Yesterday (live at candlestick Park)

The Beatles- tomorrow never knows

The Beatles- Seargent pepper’s lonely hearts club band

Argentinian and soc:cl””r fan

Ty9 annotated bibliography



Use the Attached Template and structure an annotated bibliography APA 7th edition format of the Article attached


250 words


Example Reference Format

Baker, V. L., & Pifer, M. J. (2011). The role of relationships in the transition from doctor to independent scholar. Studies in Continuing Education, 33(1), 5-17. 2010.515569

Provide a reference and an annotation (150-250 words) that includes important details about the article for each of the sources.

Annotations are descriptive and critical assessments of literature that help researchers evaluate texts and determine relevancy in relation to a research project. Ultimately, it is a note-taking tool that fosters critical thinking and helps you evaluate the source material for possible later use. Instead of reading articles and forgetting what you have read, you have a convenient document full of helpful information. An annotated bibliography can help you see the bigger picture of the literature you are reading. It can help you visualize the overall status of the topic, as well as where your unique question might fit into the field of literature. 


Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, Volume 50, Number 2, 2019

Strengths-Based Undergraduate
Rehabilitation Education Model: Preparing
Minority Leaders for Diverse Workforce

Carmela Y. Drake, PhD, LPC, CAADP, ACGC-III
D. Henry Stapleton, EdD, LPC-S, CRC, NCC

Alabama State University

Naoko Yura Yasui, PhD, CRC
University of Southern Maine

This conceptual manuscript introduces a strengths-based undergraduate rehabilitation educa-
tion model. The model was designed with the unique strengths of minority students in mind.
It conceptualizes how students’ strengths are cultivated by faculty-supported career exploration
and development and service learning opportunities. The three pillars, in combination, pre-
pare students for their fieldwork experiences. The three pillars of the model—core curriculum,
leadership training, and concentrations—are supported by a strengths-based platform. The
implementation of the model has the potential to improve student and program outcomes by
more adeptly preparing minority students to be leaders in a diverse rehabilitation workforce.

Keywords: undergraduate rehabilitation education; pedagogy; minority; leaders; curriculum

S ince 2017, the state of URE programs has been the focus of discussions due to the mergerof the Commission on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) and the Council for Accred-itation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). Recently, it has
been announced that the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Educational Pro-
grams (CAAHEP) has recognized URE programs as an allied profession and approved the for-
mation of Committee of Rehabilitation Accreditation (CoRA) to assist in the development of
accreditation standards (National Council on Rehabilitation Education, 2018). In the interim
as we await new accreditation standards, the question being posed by many URE programs is:
“Where do we go from here?” We attempt to address our shared concern through this concep-
tual manuscript describing a URE model we created based on our experience in teaching at a
historically black college/university (HBCU).

From the vantage point of serving on the faculty of one of the first accredited URE programs
at an HBCU, the authors now have the freedom to create a program that better suits our
students’ strengths. We envision a program that more fully prepares minority students to serve

© 2019 National Rehabilitation Counseling Association 129

130 Drake et al.

as leaders in a diversifying and evolving rehabilitation services profession in which minority
professionals are currently underrepresented.

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA, 2015) noted a workforce forecast
of significant shortages of mental health and substance use treatment professionals by 2025.
Additionally, the demographics of the current workforce in mental health and substance use
treatment professionals are mostly older, White women. Ryan, Murphy, and Krom (2012)
found that over 60% of clinical directors in this profession are over the age of 50, White,
and women. They found that the direct care staff fit the same description. The shortages and
lack of diversity in the rehabilitation workforce have also been observed in occupational ther-
apy. There are currently shortages in many states for occupational therapists and forecasted
to increase through 2030 (Lin, Zhang, & Dixon, 2015). Barfield, Cobler, Lam, Zhang, and
Chitiyo (2012) confirmed this barrier to recruit minority students and suggest promoting
program-based experiential opportunities to attract a more diverse group of students.

We propose a model for URE that is firmly grounded in student strengths and reflective
of career development and exploration experiences. The model will prepare a new generation
of competent rehabilitation services professionals. We envision three knowledge-based pillars
(rehabilitation core curriculum, leadership training, and concentrations) infused with service
learning opportunities and culminating with fieldwork experiences that permit full application
and integration of all aspects of the learning model.

The strength-based model (SBM) for URE, depicted in Figure 1, has features similar to a
circular Roman colonnade. The pillars (concentrations, leadership training, and rehabilitation
core curriculum) are embedded firmly in a foundation comprised of student innate strengths
and layered with meaningful, faculty-supported career exploration and development oppor-
tunities. The three pillars are fortified by incessant service learning activities. The pillars serve

FIGURE 1. Strength-based model for undergraduate rehabilitation education.

Strengths-Based Undergraduate Education Model 131

as the basis for all fieldwork endeavors. The pinnacle of the colonnade represents the compe-
tent minority rehabilitation professional who is now equipped to become a leader in a diverse


Our model focuses on creating an URE program that utilizes minority students’ strengths as
the foundation of our curriculum to develop competent rehabilitation professionals. In our
URE program, we have witnessed that a great majority of the students are the first in their
families to attend college to pursue professional careers. Most meet the typical description
of first-generation college students: being minority and of low socioeconomic status (Orbe,
2004), being less academically prepared, scoring low on admission tests, and already parents
and spouses (Garrison & Gardner, 2012). At the same time, these students are resourceful,
hopeful, and persistent in fulfilling their goals to earn a college degree. Garrison and Gard-
ner (2012) support the development of a URE model program that would allow students to
cultivate their strengths.

It was our opportunity to create a URE model that develops the strengths in our students
and prepares them to be competent rehabilitation professionals. The importance of an aca-
demic program that helps students discover their strengths and develop and apply the knowl-
edge base training has been discussed (Anderson, 2004). For our strengths-based URE model,
we have adopted the following two principles (Lopez & Louis, 2009):

1. Personalize the learning experience by practicing individualization whereby we think and
act upon strengths of each student.

2. Actively seek out novel experiences; focus practice of their strengths through strategic course
selection, use of campus resources, and mentoring relationships.

Our experience and previous research (Garrison & Gardner, 2012) concur that students at
HBCUs are proactive, goal-oriented, optimistic, reflexive, persistent, resilient, and hopeful.
Our strengths-based URE model allows students to further develop these attributes through
career exploration and development, knowledge base building, and fieldwork experiences.

We aim to actively create opportunities in classroom and advising sessions to discuss stu-
dents’ personal experiences as they relate to disability and rehabilitation. While students’ per-
spectives may be limited to their own life experiences, we, with additional professional and
personal experiences, are prepared to situate their concrete experiences in the larger societal,
political, economic, and historical contexts that involve minority populations. Guthrie and
McCracken (2010) encourage educators to utilize student’s experiences and allow students to
apply expectations to their current learning opportunities and resources. Our intention is to
engage the students along with their peers in conversations about the changes that they would
envision for the future and the roles that they may opt to play in the facilitation of changes
specifically in the field of disability and rehabilitation. Essentially, we are inviting the students
on new journeys of personal development infused with an exploration of new information
(Guthrie & McCracken, 2010). These discussions (based firmly on students’ life experiences
and faculty’s preparation for informed facilitation) are intended to assist students in discover-
ing some meaning in their experiences that can guide them through their career development,
thereby turning their experiences into their strengths.


132 Drake et al.


We argue that career exploration and development activities are central to the evolution of
the competent rehabilitation professional. Innate and emerging strengths of minority students
are solidified through career exploration and development activities. We have observed how
limited exposure to certain circumstances that are typically associated with the White mid-
dle class can suppress career exploration and development outcomes in our students. Barfield
et al., (2012) noted four barriers for minority students enrolling in rehabilitation education
programs and two of those barriers are social influence (diversity of the program) and experi-
ential opportunity (job shadowing). Hence, it is important that efforts are extended to involve
minority students in campus and community events that expose them to career-enhancing life

Students should be strongly encouraged to routinely visit the campus career center for career
exploration. Moreover, the URE program (working collaboratively with the career center and
other campus organizations) can host professional development workshops and career fairs.
Rush (2012) posited that career interventions for African American college students should
include the provision of role models who can speak about careers and discuss environmental
barriers negatively impacting career paths. Barfield et al., (2012) noted that the lack of per-
ceived ability to physically perform a service has also been observed as a barrier for minority
students’ decision to enroll in rehabilitation programs. Those providing career guidance should
proactively address fears students may have in terms of being successful, such as not believing
they have the ability to physically perform rehabilitation services. Rush (2012) emphasized the
importance of networking for career success as well as connecting students with community-
based efforts, such as internships, job shadowing, and service learning.

Students must understand that career exploration and development is an active, evolving
process; thus, program advisers must periodically gauge where students are in the process and
provide needed guidance. Mentoring is vital to the career exploration and development process.
Redmond (1990) identified three benefits of mentoring from students’ perspectives: feeling
respected as individuals, having a role model, and receiving empathy, concern, and feeling.
Redmond (1990) also highlighted the importance of personal connections in creating and
maintaining comfort and cultural validation. Castellanos, Gloria, Besson, and Harvey (2016)
confirmed the important role of mentoring for student development. According to Bettinger
and Baker (2011), students who received coaching displayed long-term persistence and higher
graduation rates.

Faculty mentoring is extremely important when assisting students with making initial and
alternative career choices (Lee, 1999). Mentors can assist students with reconstructing and
reframing lived experiences to better clarify career goals and preferences (Brott, 2001). Through
the career exploration and development lens, mentees are encouraged to filter out aspects of the
core curriculum, leadership training, and service learning, and formulate good choices about
concentrations and fieldwork. Thus, students engage in more effective career decision-making
through mentoring.


Knowledge base development will be supported by three pillars: rehabilitation core curriculum,
leadership training, and concentrations.

Strengths-Based Undergraduate Education Model 133

Rehabilitation Core Curriculum

In the strengths-based URE model, the core curriculum will preserve those aspects of the field
of rehabilitation that distinguish it from other human services fields. Hence, the core cur-
riculum may comprise the history of rehabilitation services (to include policy, legislation, and
advocacy), medical and psychosocial aspects, diversity and disability, case management, assis-
tive technology, assessment, theories in counseling, and helping skills. Each of the aforemen-
tioned core courses will incorporate components of vocational development. Furthermore, ser-
vice learning is applied as a pedagogical approach throughout the program curriculum as later

Leadership Training

As described earlier, many minority students present with varied strengths as a result of their
life experiences. Nonetheless, it is our observation that all too often, minority students do
not validate their unique vantage point as a foundation for their professional development in
rehabilitation services fields.

Thus, the second pillar of the model is leadership training. Leadership training that is
grounded in cognitive, affective, and behavioral foundations will help minority students val-
idate their own sense of injustice and channel their ambition to initiating action toward
social justice through their professional contributions. Minority students will be encour-
aged to develop soft skills capacities relating to social justice, advocacy, policy and ethics,
self-empowerment and determination, cultural competency, community collaboration, and
decision-making. As discussed earlier in the manuscript, the aforementioned capacities are
prominent in the development of effective leadership skills in URE students.

Soft skills are fundamental to professional competence, but are rarely included in the cur-
riculum of URE programs. Soft skills comprise traits, abilities which are essential for personal,
professional, and social success, and include competencies such as decision-making, communi-
cation, negotiation, business etiquette, problem-solving, and conflict management. Soft skills
are enduring and transferable from one work setting to another (Rao, 2010). Finch, Hamil-
ton, and Baldwin (2013) concluded that employers place the highest importance on soft skills.
Robles (2012) described soft skills as determinants of one’s strengths as a leader, facilitator,
mediator, and negotiator. Encouraging the formation of soft skills, most prominently in the
pillar of leadership training, will empower minority students as they prepare for a diverse reha-
bilitation services workforce.

To this end, a systematic approach that integrates classroom-based and experiential learning
is deployed. Building on the social change model of leadership (Higher Education Research
Institute, 1996), which was developed for college students, through a variety of learning activ-
ities to be conducted individually (e.g., reflection paper writing), in groups and classes (e.g.,
discussion and presentation), and in the community (e.g., service for nonprofit agencies), stu-
dents are to develop awareness and appreciation of core values in rehabilitation services, such
as respecting human rights and dignity, appreciating the diversity of human experience, and
emphasizing client strengths as opposed to deficits (Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor
Certification, 2017), and acquire skills that are required to facilitate these values.

Through such training in leadership skills and reinforcement of awareness as their leadership
potential in rehabilitation services, we expect that minority students will be able to tap into
their firsthand experience of disparity and injustice as their resource and be equipped to fulfill
their everyday professional responsibilities in rehabilitation as means to social justice.

134 Drake et al.


URE students are increasingly interested in attaining postbaccalaureate credentials. Revising
the curriculum to include courses that address certification requirements will enhance students’
skill sets and marketability in the diverse workplace. Due to the varied career paths in rehabili-
tation, the lack of minority representation in the rehabilitation workforce, and the multiplicity
of roles, functions, settings, and projected job growth, we envision the following program con-
centrations in the strength-based URE model: (a) addiction studies; (b) preallied health; and
(c) intellectual/developmental disabilities.

In curricula for these concentrations, we anticipate working with other departments within
the institution to ensure that we are providing minority students with diverse and comprehen-
sive programs of study. Components of learning in these concentrations would be provided
by multiple departments, such as health education, criminal justice, psychology, science, and
mathematics in the form of elective courses. Collaborating with these departments will ensure
that our students are receiving the basic prerequisites for the development of competencies in
the given concentration and avoid course duplications.

Addiction Studies. The concentration-specific courses for addiction studies will follow the
four transdisciplinary foundations as outlined in the Technical Assistance Publication (TAP)
Series 21: (a) understanding addiction, (b) treatment knowledge, (c) application to practice,
and (d) professional readiness (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 2006). Courses that will
be offered for this concentration within the URE program will be introduction to addictions,
pharmacology in addictions, and treatment strategies in addictions. The URE will collaborate
with the health education and psychology departments to include curriculum in alcohol and
drug studies and abnormal psychology. Additionally, students in the program that concentrate
on addictions will also take a course on drug and drug abuse through a collaboration with the
criminal justice department.

Preallied Health. Courses that will support the preallied health concentration will be
designed to meet the prerequisites to admission to graduate programs in allied health disci-
plines; hence, collaborating with the sciences and mathematics departments to ensure the stu-
dents are satisfying prerequisite courses to apply for graduate school in occupational and phys-
ical therapy. Specifically, the URE program will collaborate with the biology, chemistry, and
physic departments to include curriculum in human anatomy and physiology, physics, and
chemistry. The URE program will also collaborate with mathematics to provide curriculum in

Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities. This final concentration was chosen in response
to workforce trends reported by our recent URE graduates. Moreover, a report from the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicated an increase in children being diagnosed
with developmental disabilities between the years of 2014 and 2016 (Zablotsky, Black, &
Blumberg, 2017). We anticipate a significant future demand for professionals to serve this
population. Courses that will focus on intellectual/developmental disabilities will be offered
in partnership with the psychology department. The courses specified in the curriculum for
this concentration will be abnormal psychology, introduction to developmental disabilities,
developmental psychology, and applied behavioral analysis.


As we have mentioned, all three pillars of knowledge base building apply the pedagogical
approach of service learning. According to Furco (1996), service learning can be conceptual-
ized as a form of experiential education with an intention to equally benefit the students who


Strengths-Based Undergraduate Education Model 135

provide service for the community, and the community recipients of the service, as well as
to equally focus on the service and the learning. Consistent with Furco’s description, Miller
(2012) defined service learning as an instructional method that offers organized service experi-
ence where students are able to identify the needs of the community and reflect on their expe-
rience to better understand the course content, while building a sense of civic responsibility.

In rehabilitation education, in particular, Ortega and Garner (2014) noted that service-
learning opportunities would serve as experiential laboratories, allowing course material to be
applied to real-life scenarios. We envision that service learning will provide minority students
with hands-on experience of the services that are provided, allow them to reflect and build an
understanding of the consumer’s perspective on receiving the service, and receive small, yet
concentrated, skills training before participating in the fieldwork experience, simultaneously
serving their communities. Additionally, service learning can be applied to address a number of
other goals, such as professional networking, advocacy and community involvement, graduate
school acceptance, and employment (Hansmann, Saladin, & Quintero, 2011).


Fieldwork is the capstone that clarifies a student’s career path and solidifies professional com-
petencies and skills. Marlett et al. (2000) described rehabilitation services as a broad-based
and multidisciplinary profession and emphasized how students could be prepared as leaders
and change agents via fieldwork opportunities. In our strength-based URE program model,
the minority student will have completed a number of service-learning courses throughout the
knowledge base building. The student is expected to have a stronger sense of empowerment to
be successful in participating in the fieldwork experience. In our model, the student will now
apply all the skills attained during the service learning experiences. This should the student to
apply course content to practice in a more competent and empathic manner.

Given firsthand experiences of disparities and social injustices, minority students are par-
ticularly well suited for the roles of leader and change agent. The authors agree with Marlett
et al. (2000) that fieldwork should serve as a critical phase in leadership training.


We proposed a SBM for URE. Creating a strength-based URE model for students at histori-
cally Black colleges/universities entailed a thorough assessment of program needs from the per-
spective of minority students. A number of facets distinguish the strength-based URE model.
The program is basic and descriptive enough to be articulated and internalized by faculty, pro-
gram staff, and students. This is a student-centered model with the student’s strengths serving
as its foundation and utilizing their lived experiences as beacons of encouragement as well as
guides to how the facilitation of service learning will be infused throughout every program

The model emphasizes the empowerment of minority students via mentorship and career
development. Through concerted efforts, we envision a program that more fully prepares
minority students to serve as leaders in the ever diversifying and evolving profession of reha-
bilitation services. The incorporation of leadership training will strengthen advocacy capacity
in the students as it relates to rehabilitation policy and service provision. Students’ strengths
serve as a catalyst for career development and exploration and the eventual development of
professional competencies.


136 Drake et al.


Anderson, E. (2004). What is strengths based education? A tentative answer by someone
who strives to be a strength based educator. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from

Barfield, J. P., Cobler, D. C., Lam, E. C., Zhang, J., & Chitiyo, G. (2012). Differences between
African-American and Caucasian students on enrollment influences and barriers in kinesiology-
based allied health education programs. Advances in Physiology Education, 36 (2), 164–169.

Bettinger, E., & Baker, R. (2011). The effects of student coaching in college: An evaluation of a randomized
experiment in student mentoring (National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series No
16881). doi:10.3386/w16881

Brott, P. (2001). The storied approach: A postmodern perspective for career counseling. Career Develop-
ment Quarterly, 49, 304–313. doi:10.1002/j.2161-0045.2001.tb00958.x

Castellanos, J. C., Gloria, A. M., Besson, D., & Harvey, L. C. (2016). Mentoring matters: Racial ethnic
minority undergraduates’ cultural fit, mentorship, and college and life satisfaction. Journal of College
Readiness and Learning, 46 (2), 81–98. doi:10.1080/10790195.2015.1121792

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006). Addiction counseling competencies: The knowledge, skills,
and attitudes of professional practice. Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) Series 21. HHS Publi-
cation No. (SMA) 15-4171. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Admin-

Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification. (2017). Code of professional ethics for rehabilita-
tion counselors. Schaumburg, IL: Author.

Finch, D. J., Hamilton, L. K., & Baldwin, R. (2013). An exploratory study of factors affecting under-
graduate employability. Education & Training, 55(7), 681–704. doi:10.1108/ET-07-2012-0077

Furco, A. (1996). Service-learning: A balanced approach to experiential education. In Cooperative Edu-
cation Association (Ed.), Expanding boundaries: Serving and learning (pp. 2–6). Columbia, MD:
Cooperative Education Association.

Garrison, N., & Gardner, D. (2012). Assets first generation college students bring to the higher education
setting. Paper Presented at the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) Annual Con-
ference, Las Vegas, NE.

Guthrie, K., & McCracken, H. (2010). Teaching and learning social justice through online service learn-
ing courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 11(3), 78–94.

Hansmann, S., Saladin, S. P., & Quintero, S. (2011). Development of social learning program for students
in undergraduate deaf rehabilitation program. Journal of the American Deafness and Rehabilitation
Association, 44(3), 106.

Health Resources and Services Administration/National Center for Health Workforce Analysis; Sub-
stance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration/Office of Policy, Planning, and Inno-
vation. (2015). National Projections of Supply and Demand for Behavioral Health Practitioners:
2013–2025. Rockville, MD. Retrieved from

Higher Education Research Institute. (1996). A social change model of leadership development (Version III.
Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Higher Education Research Institute.

Lee, W. Y. (1999). Striving toward effective retention: The effect of race on mentoring African American
students. Peabody Journal of Education, 74(2), 27–43. doi:10.1207/s15327930pje7402_4

Lin, V., Zhang, X., & Dixon, P. (2015). Occupational therapy workforce in the United States: Forecasting
nationwide shortages. PM &R, 7, 946-954. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2015.02.012


Strengths-Based Undergraduate Education Model 137

Lopez, S., & Louis, M. (2009). The principles of strengths-based education. Journal of College & Character,
10(4), 1–8. doi:10.2202/1940-1639.1041

Marlett, N., Neufeldt, A., Hughson, E. A., Cran, S., Kinash, S., Parrot, B., & Foster-Wilcox, S. (2000).
Career laddering: A Canadian approach to education in community rehabilitation and disability
studies. Rehabilitation Education, 14(1), 59–75.

Miller, M. (2012). The role of service-learning to promote early childhood physical education while exam-
ining its influence upon the vocational call to teach. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 17 (1),
61–77. doi:10.1080/17408981003712810

National Council on Rehabilitation Education. (2018). Undergraduate rehabilitation education
[Press Release]. Retrieved from

Orbe, M. P. (2004). Negotiating multiple identities within multiple frames: An analy-
sis of first-generation college students. Communication Education, 53(2), 131–149.

Ortega, R. C., & Garner, W. E. (2014). Enhancing rehabilitation counselor skill development through
experiential learning in a distance education environment. International Journal of Social Work and
Human Services Practice, 2(1), 11–17.

Rao, M. S. (2010). Soft skills enhancing employability: Connecting campus with corporate. New Delhi, India:
T. K. International Publishing House.

Redmond, S. P. (1990). Mentoring and cultural diversity in academic settings. American Behavioral Sci-
entist, 349(2), 188–200. doi:10.1177/0002764290034002007

Robles, M. M. (2012). Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in today’s workplace. Business
Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 453–465. doi:10.1177/1080569912460400

Rush, L. C. (2012). Not business as usual: Reconsideration of career needs concerns, and the career inter-
ventions with African-American college students. Career Planning and Adult Development Journal,
28(1), 32–37.

Ryan, O., Murphy, D., Krom, L. (2012). Vital signs: taking the pulse of the addiction treatment work-
force, A National Report, Version 1. Kansas City, MO: Addiction Technology Transfer Cen-
ter National Office in residence at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Retrieved from

Zablotsky, B., Black, L., & Blumberg, S. (2017). Estimated prevalence of children with diagnosed develop-
mental disabilities in the United States, 2014–2016. NCHS Data Brief, no 291. Hyattsville, MD:
National Center for Health Statistics.

Disclosure. The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect
the official policy or position of their affiliated institutions.

Correspondence regarding this article should be directed to Carmela Y. Drake, PhD, LPC, CAADP,
ACGC-III, Department of Rehabilitation Studies, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104.
E-mail: [email protected]


Copyright of Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling is the property of National
Rehabilitation Counseling Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to
multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission.
However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

read the case then answer the question

read the case in attach then answer the question 4 (include a,b,c)

please answer with 1 full page, at least 2 reference.

read the case in attach then answer the question 4 (include a,b,c)

please answer with 1 full page, at least 2 reference.

read the case in attach then answer the question 4 (include a,b,c)

please answer with 1 full page, at least 2 reference.

read the case in attach then answer the question 4 (include a,b,c)

please answer with 1 full page, at least 2 reference.

read the case in attach then answer the question 4 (include a,b,c)

please answer with 1 full page, at least 2 reference.

read the case in attach then answer the question 4 (include a,b,c)

please answer with 1 full page, at least 2 reference.

read the case in attach then answer the question 4 (include a,b,c)

please answer with 1 full page, at least 2 reference.

Kennings worksheet questions

On the worksheet you will be given short excerpts from a Beowulf translation and asked to identify both the kennings the common nouns they replace.

1- find two kennings in this passage

He sang who knew

tales of the early time of man,

how the Almighty made the earth,

fairest fields enfolded by water,

set, triumphant, sun and moon

for a light to lighten the land-dwellers,

2- find two kennings (swan-road won’t count)

This heard in his home Hygelac’s thane,

great among Geats, of Grendel’s doings.

He was the mightiest man of valor

in that same day of this our life,

stalwart and stately. A stout wave-walker

he bade make ready. Yon battle-king, said he,

far o’er the swan-road he fain would seek,

the noble monarch who needed men!

3- find two kennings that refer to Grendel

But the evil one ambushed old and young

death-shadow dark, and dogged them still,

lured, or lurked in the livelong night

of misty moorlands: men may say not

where the haunts of these Hell-Runes be.

Such heaping of horrors the hater of men,

lonely roamer, wrought unceasing,

harassings heavy.

Individual education plan

 Assessment Description

Follow the instructions and complete Standards 5-7 of the “IEP Performance Template.” Base the IEP on the student you are following throughout your student teaching placement. All identifiable student information should be replaced with pseudonyms for confidentiality.

IEP Performance Standards 5-7 must be completed by the end of Week May 6

APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

Individualized Education Program (IEP) Performance Template

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Standard 1: Contextual Factors: School and Community Demographics, Classroom Demographics, Building Trust Relationships, and Classroom Management


Standard 2: Individualized Education Plan – Part 1


Standard 3: Individualized Education Plan – Part 2


Standard 4: Preparation for IEP Meeting


Standard 5: Implementation, Communication, and Progress Reporting


Standard 6: Revised IEP


Standard 7: Reflection of the IEP Process


Standard 1: Contextual Factors: School and Community Demographics, Classroom Demographics, Building Trust Relationships, and Classroom Management

The IEP Performance Standards is the process for preparing and implementing the IEP process. This template will be used to address specific standards and go through the process of creating an IEP for a student in your placement.

Part I: Community, District, School, and Classroom Factors

Complete this portion of the IPE Template document using the following link:

Standard 1, Part I

After completing the e-doc portion, submit the PDF you receive into the digital classroom.

Part II: Demographic, Environment, and Academic Factors

Complete this portion of the IEP Template document using the following link:

Standard 1, Part II

After completing the e-doc portion, submit the PDF you receive into the digital classroom.

In order to submit this assignment, you must:

1. Complete each section of Standard 1.

Closing your internet browser before the signing process is completed will result in a loss of your work. If you will be completing this document in multiple sittings, it is highly recommended to save and back up your work on another document.  When you are ready to make your final submission, copy and paste your responses into this document. The data from this electronic document will not be saved until you complete the signing process.

2. Complete the signing process by entering your name, selecting “Click to Sign,” and entering your email address. 

· An initial email will be sent to you to confirm your email address. 

· A completed copy of the document will be emailed to you within minutes of confirming your email address.

3. After completing the e-doc portion, submit the PDF you receive into the digital classroom.

Standard 2: Individualized Education Plan – Part 1

Base the IEP on the student you are following throughout your student teaching placement.

All identifiable student information should be replaced with pseudonyms for confidentiality. In addition, some information has been marked “Do not complete”’ due to confidentiality concerns.

The present level of academic achievement and functional performance (PLAAFP) will guide the development of the IEP. Teachers must describe student strengths, interests, and needs within the PLAAFP. Assessment scores and a description of how the student is performing in relationship to typically developing peers will provide the rationale for the development of IEP goals, services, testing accommodations, and supplementary aides and services. It is important that all sections of the IEP align with the PLAAFP.

Special Education Department

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Student Name: Student Data/Cover Sheet (Form A-1) IEP Meeting Date:

Demographic Information

Student Number:

Student (Pseudo) Name:




Student Address:

3500 West Camelback Road

Home Phone:

Do not complete

City, State, Zip:

Phoenix, Arizona 85017

Parent 1 (Pseudo) Name:

Parent 1 Relationship:

Parent 1 Address:

Do not complete.

Home Phone:

Do not complete.

City, State, Zip:

Do not complete.

Work Phone:

Do not complete.

Parent 1 Email:

Do not complete.

Parent 2 (Pseudo) Name:

Parent 2 Relationship:

Parent 2 Address:

Do not complete.

Home Phone:

Do not complete.

City, State, Zip:

Do not complete.

Work Phone:

Do not complete.

Parent 2 Email:

Do not complete.

Primary Language of Home:

Primary Language Survey Date:

Primary Language Survey Results:

Language of Instruction:

Home District:

Attendance District:

Service Coordinator:

Home School:

Attending School:

Vision Screened On:


Hearing Screened On:


Meeting Date:

Anticipated Duration of IEP:

From: To:

Re-evaluation Due:

Current Evaluation:

Special Education Primary Category 1:

Special Education Eligibility Category 2:

Special Education Eligibility Category 3:

For Students with SLD only, the following area(s) of eligibility was/were previously determined:

Level of Services: (A)

Type of Meeting:

Date Meeting Notice Sent to the Parent(s):

Date Procedural Safeguards given to the Parent(s):

This page will not need to be completed because it is a signature page.

Special Education Department

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Student (Pseudo) Name: Student Data/Cover Sheet (Form A-2) IEP Meeting Date:

Student ID: DOB:

The following persons participated in the conference and/or the development of the IEP. Additionally, parents have been given a copy of their rights regarding the student’s placement in special education and understand that they have the right to request a review of their child’s IEP at any time.

Position/Relation to Student Participant Date (MM/DD/YY)

If during the IEP year the student turns 16, if the student is not present at the IEP meeting, the service coordinator must review the IEP with the student and obtain the student’s signature and the date of this review.

Special Education Department

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Student (Pseudo) Name: Student Data/Cover Sheet (Form B) IEP Meeting Date:

Student ID: DOB:


Section 1: Current IEP Information

Summarize special education services the student is receiving:

Section 2: Evaluation Information

Areas of Eligibility:

Special Education Primary Category:

Special Education Eligibility Category 2:

Special Education Eligibility Category 3:

For students with SLD only, the following area(s) of eligibility was previously determined:

State and District Assessment Scores:

Section 3: Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance

A. Cognitive (academic performance in content areas, e.g., ELA/Reading/Writing, Math, Science, Social Studies, Technology and Fine Arts, as applicable)

B. Physical (gross motor, fine motor, vision, and hearing)

C. Oral Language and Communication

D. Social and Emotional Behavior

E. Adaptive

Current Classroom-Based Data:

Family’s Input on Student’s Current Performance:

Summary of Work Habits:

Section 4: Summary of Educational Needs and General Accommodations

Special Education Department

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Student (Pseudo) Name: Considerations Form (Form C) IEP Meeting Date:

Student ID DOB:


Considered Not Needed


Individual Transition Plan

Statement of Transfer of Parental Rights at Age of Majority

Statement of Positive Behavior Interventions, Strategies, and Supports Considered for a Student Whose Behavior Impedes his or her Learning, or That of Others

Statement of Language Needs in the Case of a Child with Limited English Proficiency

Statement of Provisions of Instruction in Braille and User of Braille for a Visually Impaired Child

Statement of the Language of Needs, Opportunities for Direct Communication with Peers in the Child’s Language, and Communication Mode

Statement of Required Assistive Technology Devices and Services

Statement of Communication Needs for a Child with a Disability

Special Education Department

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Student (Pseudo) Name: Accommodations (Form F) IEP Meeting Date:

Student ID: DOB:


(Rationales for the accommodations that are being chosen specific to assessments.)


State Assessments

Standard Accommodation(s):

District Assessments

Standard Accommodation(s):


Testing Area

Test Results









Provide an explanation of the extent, if any, to which the student will NOT participate with non-disabled students in the general curricular, extracurricular, nonacademic activities, and program options. §300.347(a) (4):

Consider any potential harmful effects of this placement for the child or on the quality of services that he or she needs §300.552 (a-b):

Reason for different services at school:

OR, if the above LRE information does not apply to this student, explain why:

Standard 3: Individualized Education Plan – Part 2

Special Education Department

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Student (Pseudo) Name: Student Goals and Performance Objectives IEP Meeting Date:

Student ID: Progress Report DOB:

Skill Area:


Annual Goal:

Baseline Level of Mastery:

Service Provider(s) for this goal:

Skill Area:


Annual Goal:

Baseline Level of Mastery:

Service Provider(s) for this goal:

Skill Area:


Annual Goal:

Baseline Level of Mastery:

Service Provider(s) for this goal:

Skill Area:


Annual Goal:

Baseline Level of Mastery:

Service Provider(s) for this goal:

Special Education Department

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Student (Pseudo) Name: Accommodations (Form E) IEP Meeting Date:

Student ID DOB:


Date Given to General Education Teacher: Service Coordinator:






1 = Class work/assignments 2 = Assessments/tests 3 = Both class work/assignments/assessments


A = All Subjects B = Language Arts/English C = Reading D = Spelling E = Math

F = Science G = Social Studies H = Health I = Electives J = Physical Education

K = Lunch L = Transition / Vocation M = Library N = Title 1 O = Special/Exploratory

Family Communication

How will the family be informed of their child’s academic progress and the extent to which that progress is sufficient to enable the child to achieve annual goals by the end of the year?

IEP Team Consideration for Extended School Year

Consideration for eligibility:

Eligible for ESY:

Written explanation as to why ESY is or is not needed:

Special Education Department

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Student (Pseudo) Name: Services and Environment (Form I) IEP Meeting Date:

Student ID: DOB:


Special education services necessary to meet special education goals and objectives during the school calendar year.

The child is in need of specially designed instruction in the following areas:

Special Education Services

Instructional Setting/ Location

Start Date



Duration/ End Date



Special Education Services

Instructional Setting/ Location

Start Date



Duration/ End Date




Special Education Services

Instructional Setting/ Location

Start Date



Duration/ End Date



Special Education Services

Instructional Setting/


Start Date



Duration/ End Date


Standard 4: Preparation for IEP Meeting

The IEP team must cover mandated topics during the IEP meeting. Topics that must be addressed during the IEP include, but are not limited to, an introduction of team members, clarifying the type of meeting (initial, review, amendment/addendum to current IEP), the required components of the IEP, the procedural safeguards, and prior written notice.

IEP Meeting Planning

Required Participants/Roles: List the participants of an IEP meeting and their roles, including whether or not the student is expected to participate.

Required Agenda Outline: In 500-750 words, create an agenda for the IEP meeting. Discuss the required topics you must address (i.e., introduction of team members, whether or not this is an initial or review or an annual IEP, discussion of test results, present levels, goals, services, Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) statement, Extended School Year (ESY) services, procedural safeguards, and prior written notice.

Plan for Conflicts: Provide a description of ways you can involve parents in the development of the IEP. Discuss whether you anticipate issues or conflicts that may arise during the meeting and your plan on addressing those concerns.

Mock IEP Introduction Video

Now that you have outlined the IEP meeting agenda, you are prepared to conduct the meeting. In order to prepare for running your first official IEP meeting, record yourself as if you were conducting the IEP meeting. Your video should not exceed 15 minutes in length.

Focus your practice on the meeting introduction. Include the following components within your recording:

· An introduction of all parties represented and their roles

· Reason for the meeting (initial IEP or IEP review)

· Meeting norms so all parties are heard and respected

· Review of the PLAAFP including the discussion of test results, present levels, goals, services, Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) statement, Extended School Year (ESY) services, procedural safeguards, and prior written notice (PWN).

Conclude your video by providing an explanation of how you would actively listen to and address the needs of families and other stakeholders throughout the meeting.

After recording yourself, review and reflect upon the video below.

Mock IEP Introduction Video Link:

Video Recording Link: If you are submitting your video to OneDrive, note it here.

Reflection: In 250-500 words, reflect on your IEP meeting practice session. In what areas do you feel you did well? In what areas would you like to have more guidance and coaching before conducting your first official IEP on your own? What plan of action do you have for more coaching and guidance?

Standard 5: Implementation, Communication, and Progress Reporting

Accountability of Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) is mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA). IEP teams must have a plan to document the provision of services as written in the IEP. Appropriate and accurate data must also be collected to document quarterly progression toward mastery of IEP goals. Teams must have a plan for on-going data collection, communication, and presentation of data to the parents/guardians during quarterly progress reports and annual IEP review meetings.

Accommodations Progress and Communication Plan

Complete the Accommodations Table below, demonstrating how you plan to ensure all accommodations are being met in the general education setting (if applicable). If the student is not in a general education classroom, indicate how the student will receive accommodations in content specific areas based on his or her PLAAFP and IEP goals.

On the Accommodations Table, note the dates when you will obtain progress reports from the general education teacher or related services staff so that you can gather data on progress (if applicable). If no general education teachers are reporting, indicate the dates of your (special education teacher) reporting.

In addition, use the Accommodations Table to gather data on the student’s progress for the first Quarterly Progress Report.

NOTE: Only two dates are included on the Accommodations Table for the purpose of this assignment. You may not gather data on both dates in the duration of your placement, but dates should be noted.

Accommodations Table

Goal 1:

Implemented Accommodations:

Person(s) Responsible:

Quarterly Progress Report 1 Date:

Data Results:

Quarterly Progress Report 2 Date:

Data Results:

Goal 2:

Implemented Accommodations:

Person(s) Responsible:

Quarterly Progress Report 1 Date:

Data Results:

Quarterly Progress Report 2 Date:

Data Results:

Accommodations Summary:

In 100-150 words, summarize information from the Accommodations Table as well as data you have gathered through teaching and observing the student. Address mastery of goals, progress towards mastery, and overall service provision.

Communication Plan for General Education Teachers and Related Services Staff:

After completing the accommodations table and summary, in 150-250 words, describe a communication plan that outlines how you plan to share the student’s progress information with the necessary faculty and staff. Address how you and your colleagues will continue to monitor progress along the way, prior to receiving the quarterly progression updates.

Standard 6: Revised IEP

IEP teams are expected to regularly analyze and document students’ progress on their IEP goals throughout the year. This includes identifying when there are changes affecting the student and presenting evidence of attempts to meet student needs when there is a lack of progress. To address times when information, services, or goals need to be changed or added to an existing IEP, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) describes the regulations and procedures for changing an IEP using an amendment or addendum. An amendment is used to change something already in the IEP. An addendum is used to add something new to the IEP, such as goals, services, or accommodations.

After reflecting on your completed Standard 5 content, create a progress report addendum and/or amendment (based on changes needed) to be added to the initial IEP, or describe why neither an addendum nor amendment are not needed.

Data Collection and IEP Modifications

Stakeholders involved in special education must be aware of the student progress monitoring process, keeping the goal of mastering IEP goals and presenting evidence of attempts to meet said goals in mind. It is vital to keep a record of new information affecting student needs, including a lack of progress when an IEP is in effect, using an IEP amendment or addendum. An amendment is a change to the IEP and an addendum is the addition of goals or services and accommodations to the IEP.

IEP Modification Need

After monitoring and gathering data, analyze how the student is performing on his or her IEP goals and with the accommodations. Consider whether there is a need for an addendum and/or an amendment for the student. If there is a need, in 50-100 words explain this need and the approach to be taken (an amendment or an addendum). If there is no need at this time, simply explain how the student is performing and progressing toward their IEP goals.

Family Communication Plan

In 50-100 words, discuss how you plan to communicate the student’s progress on his or her IEP goals with the parents/guardians. (You may want to discuss this process with your mentor so you have a method to use for future practice.)

Standard 7: Reflection of the IEP Process

Reflection is an important part of professional practice. Professional special education teachers plan and frequently reflect on their delivery of services, instruction, data collection procedures, and individual student progress. Identification of practices that have worked, and those that have not, can help the special education teacher adjust instruction and services to better meet the needs of students.

Continued Learning

After completing the Individualized Education Program (IEP) Performance Template, reflect upon three best practices you have learned from this student teaching experience in 50-150 words.




Improved Practice

Based on your experience of developing and delivering your Individualized Education Program (IEP) Performance Template, list three implications for your future teaching practices in 50-150 words. Consider concepts you want to take with you into your own classroom, such as how you will establish and maintain organization in order to facilitate the IEP process in your classroom.




© 2019. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

© 2019. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. Page 2 of 21

Health Individual Project 2

Healing Hands Hospital is an acute care community hospital that serves a suburban community outside of a large city with two competing large academic medical centers. Both Healing Hands Hospital and the academic medical centers have a long history of service to the region, but their business and fundamental practices are different. Your manager, Ms. Woods, Healing Hands’ Chief Operating Officer, is part of the Task Force working on the strategic plan for the hospital and needs to understand the fundamental practices of these academic medical centers.

You have been asked to research the differences between the services that your organization offers and those of at least one of these academic medical centers. For the purposes of this assignment, use the Web to research community hospitals and academic medical centers and select one community hospital and one academic medical center located in the same city or area to represent these two healthcare organizations for the purpose of working on this assignment. You will use the information that you find about these two healthcare organizations for the Individual Project assignments in the remaining weeks of the course culminating in your final project in Week 5. Use the acute-care community hospital to represent Healing Hands Hospital. This link provides a list of example community hospitals. Choose one and then find an academic medical center located in the same geographic region. Review the Web information on these facilities to complete this assignment.

1. Describe the similarities and differences of these organizations in terms of the following:

  • Mission
  • Goals
  • Objectives
  • Management structure
  • Reimbursement models
  • Staffing
  • Policies
  • Procedures
  • Research and clinical trials

2. Based on your analysis of the data that you present, provide your opinion on what would be the main areas of concern if the two organizations were to merge and how they could be overcome.

You may include a table for the comparison data, but you must describe your evaluation of where there are and are not similarities between the two healthcare organizations and your opinion.

Be sure to document your references using APA format. This includes the websites for the two hospitals that you are using for the assignment.